Spatial Demography -- Global Patterns Spatial Demography -- Global & National Patterns

I. Regional Variation in Birth Rates, Death Rates, and Growth Rates.

  1. Areas with high birth rates:  Africa and Southwest Asia
  2. Areas with low birth rates:  North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China
  3. Areas of high death rates:  Africa and Southwest Asia
  4. Areas of low death rates:  Most of the developed world
  5. Areas with changes in growth rates:  India down from 2.6 to 1.9, Africa up from 2.4 to 2.8, China declined to 1.0, South America down from 3.0 to1.7, continued rapid growth in Southeast Asia.

II. Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors

  1. National Comparisons of Spatial Patterns: 

    1. US County Demographics:
    2. Dependency Ratios:  Share of the population over the age of 65. 
    3. Population Centroid:  The balancing point of the U.S. population.
    4. Age-Cause-Specific Death Rates:  Leading causes of death in a country. 
  2. International Comparisons of Spatial Patterns 
            1. Population distribution and density
                a. Global Population Distribution
                b. Arithmetic vs. Physiological Density
            2. Expectation of life
            3. Infant and Child Mortality
                a. Infant Mortality Rate:  D(0-1)/P(0-1) * 1,000 (per 1,000 births).
                b. Child Mortality Rate: D(1-5)/P(1-5) * 1,000
  3. Spatial Risk Factors:  Proximity to hazards or toxins, also linked to culture.
            -- Example:  Southern U.S. have high fat diets, puts you at risk for heart disease.

III. World Population Concentrations

  1. East Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan)
  2. South Asia (1.5 billion in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan)
  3. Europe (700 million)
  4. North America
  5. Other Moderate Concentrations

IV. Some Generalizations

  1. 90% of the world’s population is above the equator, 66% in the mid-latitudes.
  2. 50% of the population lives on 5% of the available land.
  3. Lowland concentrations of populations.
  4. 66% of the world’s populations are within 500 km of the ocean.