Spatial Demography -- Disease Types and Models of Infectious Disease

I.  Disease Categories and Spatial Incidence

  1. Infectious Diseases (micro-and macro-parasitism)
    --examples: malaria, AIDS, yellow fever, influenza
  2. Chronic (degenerative) Diseases
    --examples: cancer, heart disease, arthritis
  3. Genetic (inheritied) Diseases
    --examples: hemophilia, sickle-cell anemia, lactose intolerance

II.  Spatial Incidence of Infectious Disease

  1. Annual Mortality Rate of Infectious Diseases in the U.S. 
  2. Leading causes of death in the U.S.: 1900 vs. 1997

    1. In 1900, Pneumonia, and Tuberculosis are leading causes of death, in 1997 it's Heart Disease and Cancer
    2. Lifestyle changes--more sedentary
    3. Diet and overall health changes
  3. Historical Mortality Rates due to different Infectious Diseases 
    --Different factors contribute to changes in mortality rates

III.  Epidemic vs. Pandemic

  1. Epidemic: need definition
  2. Pandemic: very spatially extensive epidemic

IV.  Infectious Disease

  1. Disease processes in time and space
    1. Point sources: disease clusters
    2. Spreads by contagious diffusion
  2. Disease Clusters
    1. Cancer--sometimes environmental linkages to cancer clusters
    2. John Snow--cholera--plotted cholera outbreak in relation to water pumps in London 
    3. Jeoffrey Jacquez example (?)
  3. Spatial Diffusion of Infectious Disease
    1. Contagious Diffusion - Key elements in a spatial diffusion process:
      1. spatial rate of transfer
      2. disease waves
      3. critical community size: must have a certain sized population in order for disease to be endemic
    2. Expansion Diffusion
      1. Contagious/direct contact
      2. Distance
      3. Hierarchical
    3. Relocation Diffusion
  4. Models and Images of Spatial Diffusion of Infectious Diseases
    1. Spatial Diffusion and the AIDS pandemic 
    2. Past Epidemics 
    3. Conceptual View of the spread of communicable disease 
    4. One more--check out title 
    5. The GAIA Model 
      1. Compartmental model--boxes contain individuals, individuals move among compartments at a particular rate
      2. Make the model spatial by regionalizing it.  Regions contain a certain number of susceptibles, infecteds, and recovereds, and these individuals spread disease among different regions.