| The Origins of Spatial Thought
I. Early History
1. Major Countries/People
2. Major Individuals
3. Longitude Act of 1714
for an accurate method to measure longitude for navigational purposes.
Two methods used: Lunar method--determine your location by comparison
to the stars. Time Method--use an accurate time-keeper to determine
change in position (can determine the number of arc lengths traveled
from high noon). The Harrison Time Keepers won the reward.
1. Problem: transferring
a spherical surface to a planar surface.
2. Gerard Mercator is one of
the first to offer a good solution.
3. Carl Sauer, "If a geographer
is not fascinated by maps to the extent of always needing to be
surrounded by them, then that is a clue that he or she has chosen
the wrong profession."
II. Early Modern History
1. Organizations developed
for training individuals to become geographers.
a. American Geographical Society
Royal Geographic Society
2. Organizations developed
to raise funds to promote explorations and disseminate information
from expeditions to the public.
Association of American Geographers
National Geographic Society
B. Environmental Determinism vs. Possibilism
Determinism: Human behavior, individually and collectively, is
strongly affected by, and even controlled or determined by, the
i. Charles Darwin--Origin of Species
ii. Ellen Sample (1911)--"Man is the product of the earth's surface."
Possibilism: The natural environment merely serves to limit the
range of choices available to a culture or individual.
Tension between the two still exists today.
C. Regional Geography
1. 1930's: American Regionalism--Understand
a city or any given place by unerstanding the region that lies within.
2. Hartshorne (1939) The
Nature of Geography, breaks a large area into regions:
that interprets the realities of areal differentiation of the world
as they are found, not only in terms of the differences in certain things
from place to place, but also in terms of the total combination of phenomena
in each place, different from those at every other place."
of relevant characteristics to provide a total description of place-or
region-which is identifiable by its peculiar combination of those
section of history; spatial sections of geography
3. Formal Region: Areas of
b. Wood Products,
c. Fabricated Textiles,
4. Functional Region: Product of interactonsor
movement of various kinds
III. Modern History
A. Systematics and Scientific Method
B. Schaefer (1953) Exceptionalism in Geography:
A Methodological Examination. The Regional approach is
too descriptive, geography needs to have rules and theories that
apply to more than just specific regions.
C. Positive Science (Logical Positivism)
D. General Laws/quantitative methods/policy analysis
E. Bumbling amateurism and antiquarianism
F. Science of spatial arrangements--why places
are where they are--the quantitative revolution in geography
1. Iowa School and Wisconsin
School: both take a spatial approach to geography and use spatial statistics.
2. Washington School:
Garrison and students (Brian Berry, A.Getis, D. Marble, R. Morrill,
J. Nystuen, and Waldo Tobler) become heroes of the quantitatie
movement by applying Schaefer's approach.
G. Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science
H. Social Physics
--John Stewart: Astronomer
of Physics, gravity law for people to determine flows of populations.
I. Regional Science
--Walter Isard (1956) Pennsylvania
J. Philosophical Approaches:
1. Structuralism: Cannot
reduce or extract to one occasion
IV. Summary: Simonett's Cube provides a model of the various essential
components of geography.