The Origins of Spatial Thought

I.  Early History
    A.  Mathematics
       1. Thales
       2. Herodotus
       3. Ptolemy
        4. Varenius
    B.  Exploration
        1.  Major Countries/People Groups
            a. Muslim
            b. Scandinavians
            c. Chinese
            d. Medieval Christians
        2.  Major Individuals
            a. Magellan
            b. Columbus
            c. James Cooke
            d. Charles Darwin
        3.  Longitude Act of 1714
                --Reward given for an accurate   method to measure longitude for navigational purposes.  Two methods  used: Lunar method--determine your location by comparison to the stars.   Time Method--use an accurate time-keeper to determine change  in position (can determine the number of arc lengths traveled from high noon).    The Harrison Time Keepers won the reward.
    C.  Cartography
        1. Problem:  transferring a spherical surface to a planar surface.
        2. Gerard Mercator is one of the first to offer a good solution.
            3. Carl Sauer, "If a geographer is not fascinated   by maps to the extent of always needing to be surrounded by them, then that is a clue that he or she has  chosen the wrong profession."
II.  Early Modern History
    A.  Exploration
        1.  Organizations developed for training individuals to become geographers.
            a. American Geographical Society 
            b. Royal Geographic Society
            2.  Organizations developed to raise  funds  to promote explorations and disseminate information from expeditions  to the public. 
            a. Association of American Geographers
            b. National Geographic Society
    B.  Environmental Determinism vs. Possibilism
        1.  Definitions:
                a. Environmental Determinism:   Human behavior, individually and collectively, is strongly affected by, and  even controlled or determined by, the environment.  
                i.  Charles Darwin--Origin of Species
               ii. Ellen Sample (1911)--"Man is the product of the earth's surface."
            b. Possibilism:  The natural environment merely serves to limit the range of choices available to a culture or individual.
            c. Tension between the two still exists today.
    C.  Regional Geography
        1. 1930's: American Regionalism--Understand a city or any given place by unerstanding the region that lies within.
        2. Hartshorne (1939) The Nature of Geography, breaks a large area into regions:
                --"...a science that interprets   the realities of areal differentiation of the world as they are found, not only in terms of the differences in certain things from place to place, but also in terms of the total combination of phenomena in each place, different from those   at every other place."
                --"...Integration of relevant   characteristics to provide a total description of place-or region-which is  identifiable by its peculiar combination of those characteristics."
            --Temporal section of history; spatial sections of geography
        3. Formal Region: Areas of homogeneous attributes
            a.  Metalworking, 1997            
            b.    Wood Products, 1997                 
            c.    Fabricated Textiles, 1997             
       4. Functional Region: Product of interactonsor movement of various kinds
III.  Modern History
    A.  Systematics and Scientific Method
      B.  Schaefer (1953) Exceptionalism in Geography: A  Methodological Examination.  The Regional approach is too descriptive, geography needs  to have rules and theories that apply to more than just specific regions.  
    C.  Positive Science (Logical Positivism)
    D.  General Laws/quantitative methods/policy analysis
    E.  Bumbling amateurism and antiquarianism
    F.  Science of spatial arrangements--why places are where they are--the quantitative revolution in geography
        1.  Iowa School and Wisconsin School: both take a spatial approach to geography and use spatial statistics.
            2.  Washington School: Garrison and students   (Brian Berry, A.Getis, D. Marble, R. Morrill, J. Nystuen, and Waldo Tobler)   become heroes of the quantitatie movement by applying Schaefer's approach.  
    G. Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science 
    H. Social Physics
        --John Stewart: Astronomer of Physics, gravity law for people to determine flows of populations.
        I.    Regional Science
        --Walter Isard (1956) Pennsylvania
    J.  Philosophical Approaches:
        1.  Structuralism: Cannot reduce or extract to one occasion
        2.  Post-Modernism
        3.  Methodological/theoretical pluralism
IV.  Summary: Simonett's Cube provides a model of the various essential components of geography.