Human Settlements -- The History of Urbanization

I.  Ancient Societies
        A.  Egalitarian
        B.  Southwest Asia (6000 B.C.)
            1.  Domestication and Agriculture
            2.  Large Settlements
            3.  Stratified Society--surplus of time leads to specialization and division of labor
        C.  Cities and States--settlements in one place dictate the need for political systems/government
        D.  Ancient cities
            1.  3 Administrative Levels
            2.  Dominant Urban Center
        E.  The city is a recent invention--only 8,000 years old
            --formative ear: 7,000-5,000 B.C.
        F.  Location of Cities
            1.  Proximity to Farmland
            2.  Availability of surface and groundwater
            3.  Good location for defense purposes
            4.  Proximity to trade routes
        G.  Functions of Early Cities
            1.  Political Centers
            2.  Religious Centers
            3.  Economic Centers
            4.  Cultural Centers
            5.  Often one city among a group of cities is the political or religious center of the group
        H.  Size of Early Centers
            1.  10,000-15,000 people
            2.  Determined by the capacity of the social and economic system
           3.   Village forms 
II.  Ancient Cities--Diffusion to Greece
        A.  From Mesopotamia to Greece
        B.  3000 B.C.--Greece is highly urbanized
            1.  500 cities and towns
            2.  250,000 inhabitants (largest city--Athens)
        C.  Global Impacts of Greek cities (?)
        D.  City Characteristics:
            1.  Acropolis
            2.  Agora
        E.  Underbelly:  poor sanitation and slave labor--did not have a good infrastructure
III.  Ancient Roman Cities
        A.  Progenitors of what we have in the West
        B.  Overlaid on the Etruscan system
        C.  Extensive settlement system
        D.  City Characteristics:
            1.  Good infrastructure and transportation
            2.  Rectangular grid system
            3.  When Agora is transported to Rome, it becomes a market center
            4.  Different towns had different functions--i.e. Military towns
            5.  Forum, Stadium, High Culture and Architecture
            6.  Underbelly:  Slave labor
IV.  Ancient Cities:  Other Rising Cities
        A.  Xian, China
        B.  Saharan Trading Cities
        C.  Mayan Urbanization
        D.  Aztec Capitol of Teotihuacan > 100,000 people