Human Settlements -- Central Place Theory

I.  Cities and Technology
   A.  Technology causes growth and transition
   B.  John Borchant's Evolutionary Epochs:
       1.  Sail-Wagon (1790-1830)--Eastern Seaboard
       2.  Iron Horse (1830-1870)--The Train, leads to macro settlements
       3.  Steel-Rail (1870-1920)
           a.  Industrial Revolution
           b.  Strong in the Northeast
           c.  Distance between places matters less
           d.  Some suburbanization at this point (for those who can afford it)
       4.  Auto-Air-Amenity (1920-1970)
           a.  Greater connectivity between places
           b.  Increasing suburbanization
           c.  Amenities start driving locational decisions
       5.  High-Technology (1970-?)
           --Telecommunications
              --"Armoured Train" painting by  Gino Severini--movement in futurist art, predicts the fast-paced life of cities
II.  Keith Clarke's Urban Growth Model
III.  Central Place Theory
   A.  Definitions:
       1.  Centrality: amount of draw to a particular place
       2.  Threshold:  minimum population for normal profits
       3.  Range: distance consumer is willing to travel to purchase a product
   B.  Assumptions
       1.  Uniform spatial distribution of population income
       2.  Isotropic transport surface
       3.  Consumers will patronize nearest market
       4.  No excess profits (range = threshold)-- hexagonal pattern
   C.  Higher order cities have higher order services
       --large market in the middle contains very high order functions that require a large market area
   D.  Relax Assumptions:
          1.  Population income variation--wealthy  vs. non-wealty areas, wealthy areas do not usually need as large of a threshold
       2.  Variation in transport surfaces
       3.  Consumer Behavior/Individual Preferences
       4.  Profits
   E.  Applications to Retail and settlement_systems
       1.  Equal Distribution/Patterning of Space (i.e. video stores)
       2.  Do cities of similar size have approximately equal spacing?
    F.  Christaller and Central Place Theory
       1.  Functional Structure
       2.  CBD at center, then central city, then suburbs
IV.  Urban Ecology:  Classic Models
   A.  Concentric Zone:  Burgess in the 1920's
   B.  Sector Model:  Hoyt in the 1930's
       1.  Do not see concentric zones when you look at the land
       2.  Sectors:  Industry, high rent near recreation/retail
   C.  Multiple Nuclei:  Harris and Ulman in the 1940's
        --Example: Los Angeles--all kinds of zones, quite partitioned
    D.  Urban Realms Model
          --a CBD, but multiple suburbs that have suburban  downtowns, also, a "New Downtown" outside of the CBD
V.  Urban Renewal and Gentrification
          --"Yuppy" movement back into downtowns--higher-income,  single, or no children couples living in suburban downtowns or "New Downtown"
          --Gentrification: the rehabilitation of deteriorated inner-city housing with favorable locations relative to the CBD