Human Environment Interactions--"In the News" and Climate Change

I.  In the News
   A.  Netherlands going under?  Changes in sea level as a result of global climate change
   B.  Amount of carbon sinks permitted per country
   C.  Surfboard Industry is really quite dirty--industries that we think are harmless are not
II.  Global Climate Change
   A.  Control Factors on Climate
       --particulates regulate the amount of UV radiation that reaches the earth
   B.  Climatic regions and historical development patterns
         1.  Biome: area of earth's surface that  hosts particular plants and animals in response to the climate in that region.  i.e. desert, grassland, steppe, tropical rainforest, etc.
       2.  Natural vs. Human-Induced Climate Change
           --Natural: volcanoes, asteroids
           --Human induced: deisel exhaust, smokestack industries, dust storms (mismanagement of prairies), forest fires
           --1940: some cooling, possibly because of the Industrial Revolution
           --today: concern for Global Warming, acid rain, depletion of the Ozone layer
       3.  Global Warming:  The Greenhouse Effect
             a.  Industrial Revolution  introduces non-renewable resources and these gases make a layer around the  earth that prevents heat from escaping
           b.  Greenhouse Gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, CFC's
           c.  Renewable resources: water, sun, wood
       4.  Secondary Effects from the Greenhouse Effect:
           --Sea level rises, increasing aridity, extreme weather patterns, change in crop yields
       5.  1850-the present
           --Carbon Dioxide levels are 200% greater than they were during the Industrial Revolution
           --from 1990-2010, projected 49% increase in carbon dioxide levels
       6.  Disagreement over whether or not global warming is actually occurring
             --scientific community says it  is occurring, counterargument states that these changes are a part of the  earth's natural cycle
       7.  Changes in temperature
           a.  1780-1880: average mean temperature up by .3 degrees celsius
           b.  1880-1980: average temperature up by .6 degrees celsius
           c.  1985-1990: average temperature up by .5 degrees celsius
       8.  Carbon Sinks:
           --depends on the amount of vegetation in a particular area
         9.  Carbon emissions are a function of population, standard of living, energy intensity (related to standard of living), and carbon intensty of production
III.  Acid Rain
   A.  Low Altitude vs. High Altitude pollutants
       --sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide enters the atmosphere and comes down as acid
   B.  Cycle hurts lakes, trees, and soils
   C.  Mostly falls on the east side of the U.S. (old industrial corridor of the US, winds blow from West to East)
   D.  Damage to crops, forests, humans, and phytoplankton
IV.  Ozone Depletion
   A.  Between 1957 and 1990, Global Ozone Depletion down 30-35%
   B.  Upper vs. lower atmospheric zone:
       --Low: photochemical smogs (car pollution)
       --Upper: blocks UV radiation (DNA effects)
   C.  Montreal Protocol