Culture and Cultural Landscapes

I.  Definitions
     A.  Culture: has its roots in anthropology; the language,  music, art, mode of dress, etc. of a particular people group, and human-made part of the environment. 
    B.  Culture Region: spatial manifestation of a culture system
    C.  Culture Trait: single attribute of a culture
    D.  Cultural Complex: discrete combination of cultural traits
    E.  Culture System: group complexes together by common traits such as ethnicity, language, and religion
    F.  Culture Realm: highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography
    G.  Culture Hearth:
        1.  Points of origin for cultural evolution
        2.  Varied impact
        3.  Civilizations: degree and range of influence on other cultures
     H.  Cultural Landscape: "the forms superimposed on the  physical landscape by the activities of man."  Carl Sauer (the built environment)
II.  Cultural Diffusion
    A.  Movements of people, goods, or ideas
    B.  Independent Invention
    C.  Expansion Diffusion:
        1.  Contagious Diffusion: nearly all adjacent individuals are affected
          2.  Hierarchical Diffusion: main channel  of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to or adopting whatever is being diffused
          3.  Stimulus Diffusion: when something  is not readily adopted by a receiving population, but later on as the result  of some sort of stimulus,  is adopted
     D.  Relocation Diffusion: the actual movement of individuals  who have already adopted an idea or innovation and carry it to a new, perhaps distant locale, where they proceed  to disseminate it.
          --Migrant diffusion: when an innovation originates somewhere and enjoys strong but brief adoption there
     E.  Importance of technology in the speed of diffusion:  as we become more technologically advanced, diffusion rates increase
III.  Barriers to Diffusion
     A.  Time and Distance decay: the further an innovation  is from its source, the less likey it is to be adopted; same with time, the acceptance of an innovation becomes  less likely the longer it takes to reach particular adopters
    B.  Cultural Barriers: language, religion, history, and others
    C.  Physical Barriers: isolation because of oceans, mountains, climate etc.
    D.  Examples:
         1.  Walmart: started small (in Arkansas)  and saturated areas around an urban area before moving into the urban area (hierarchical  diffusion in reverse)
              --Why hasn't Walmart succeeded  in New England?  A destroyer of  "Main Street" family-run shopping  districts, which New  England won't allow
         2.  AIDS:  begins in New York, Miami,  Houston, L.A., San Francisco, and Seattle and progresses through different socio-economic  groups and different types of populations
IV.  Cultural Perception
     A.  Perceptual Regions: constructs designed to help understand  the nature and distribution of phenomena in Human Geography
    B.  Perceptual vs. Cultural Regions:
       1.  "North America's Vernacular Regions"--W. Zelinsky 
        2.  People have different perceptions of the location of the "Deep South" and other geographical regions
        3.  Cultural regions have a regional identity
V.  Cultural Environments: Determinism/Possibilism
     A.  Determinism: Climate is a critical factor determining  a culture's level of progress and productiveness, i.e. India's caste system
    B.  Possibilism:
        1.  Innovations and will allow a culture to overcome the limits imposed by physical characteristics like climate
        2.  Choices a culture makes depend on their needs and levels of technology
        3.  Environmental constraints are less binding as a culture increases its level of technology